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Title:Compensation effect between sodium and fat in reduced and lower fat processed food systems
Author(s):Cox, Ginnefer Olisa
Director of Research:Lee, Soo-Yeun
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Schmidt, Shelly J
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Lee, Youngsoo; Engeseth, Nicki J
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
consumer test
descriptive analysis
Abstract:Dietary sodium reduction is of concern to the scientific community due to it being a contributing factor in hypertension in adults in the United State (US). Processed foods are a significant contributor towards dietary sodium consumption. Obesity has also been linked to the increased incidence and prevalence of hypertension. With obesity and dietary sodium consumption being leading factors in the management of hypertension, processed foods that are lower in both fat and sodium for increased consumer acceptance require examination. The overall objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze sodium and fat content in ten major processed food categories, 2) survey consumer knowledge of sodium and fat content in processed foods in order to assess comprehension of nutrient content claims, 3) determine drivers of liking of a model processed food system with varying levels of sodium, fat, and herb levels, 4) compare the link among prior perception of nutrition labels, sensory acceptability, and nutrition labeling formats in a model processed food system., and 5) determine the threshold of sodium in a model reduced and low oil-in-water emulsion system. From the major processed food categories in which sodium and fat content were examined, the salad dressings and deli meats categories showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in sodium for the reduced fat product when compared to its regular counterpart. When consumer knowledge of sodium and fat content was surveyed, less than 50% of the consumers were able to correctly answer questions of nutrient content claims pertaining to sodium and fat. Particularly, for health and food professionals, nutrition professionals had the highest percentage of correct responses, and medical professionals had the lowest percentage of correct responses in nutrient content claim knowledge. When a model processed food system was tested for consumer liking, sodium and herb levels were found to be the drivers of liking when sodium, fat, and herb levels were varied. When evaluating prior perception of nutrition labels and sensory acceptability, consumer sensory acceptability was not impacted by the presentation of nutrient content information with the sample tasting. However, presenting labeling information without an actual sample tasting did impact the expected consumer acceptability. The threshold for sodium was identified in a model reduced and low oil-in-water emulsion system, and was found to be higher in the reduced fat emulsion than the low fat emulsion. Study findings allow for insight regarding consumers’ detection of differences in sodium levels within reduced and low fat emulsion systems, which can contribute towards achieving mechanisms for stealth sodium reduction in processed food systems. Overall, findings from this research can be used to guide product formulation for reducing sodium content without compromising consumer acceptance, particularly in reduced and lower fat processed food systems. Maintaining consumer acceptance in lower sodium and fat food systems compared to their original counterparts would contribute towards a decrease in the risks associated with hypertension in the U.S.
Issue Date:2016-04-20
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Ginnefer Olisa Cox
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-07-07
Date Deposited:2016-05

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