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Title:Multiplexed protein biomarker analysis on silicon photonic microring resonators: translation towards clinical diagnostics
Author(s):Shia, Winnie W
Director of Research:Bailey, Ryan C
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Bailey, Ryan C
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Murphy, Catherine J; Suslick, Kenneth S; Sweedler, Jonathan V
Department / Program:Chemistry
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
microring resonator
Abstract:Protein biomarkers are valuable indicators of human physiological states. In clinical practice, they play a strong role in presymptomatic diagnosis of various diseases, as well as evaluation of disease prognosis and aid in treatment decisions making. Due to the importance of biomarkers, much efforts were made towards the discovery of good biomarker candidates, analytical methodologies for biomarker detection and quantitation, and ultimately, translation of the developed analytical platform to detect novel biomarkers in clinical practice. This dissertation places stronger emphasis on the latter two aspects of protein biomarker research: detection of biomarkers through immunoassays development, and translation of optimized assays to clinical samples analysis. For the immunoassays development aspect, assays described in this thesis were developed on a platform based on silicon photonic microring resonator technology. This sensing technology has high potential for clinical diagnostics utility, as sensor chips of this platform can be cheaply manufactured through a highly scalable process. Moreover, continuous improvements in sensor chip designs allowed rapid increase of biomarkers that can be detected simultaneously in a multiplexed panel. Multiplexed measurements are desirable due to the heterogeneity of the human population, and in many instances quantitation of multiple biomarkers are necessary to identify the disease state. Additionally, the latest generation sensing platforms have integrated fluidic systems that can be programmed for immunoassay automation, which shortens intensive training required for clinical laboratory personnel to perform assay runs. For the translational aspect of applying novel biomarker detection to the clinical laboratory, collaborations have been established with hospital physicians for access to clinical samples from diseased patients. Blood serum or plasma samples from these patients have been evaluated by the immunoassays developed on the microring resonator platform, and results from the platform’s measurements are then evaluated against other established immunoassay techniques to assess assay performance. Translational research in clinical diagnostics is a trial and error process. Good immunoassays developed for novel biomarkers might not have good diagnostics value once placed into clinical evaluations, and thus the biomarker discovery and assay development research phases repeats through again. This doctoral dissertation describes the progress of immunoassay development throughout the continuous improvements in the microring resonator platform, and eventually translates some of the developed assays to clinical samples analysis. Chapter 1 contains an introduction to protein biomarker immunoassays and their translational research value, with a more in depth description of microring resonators operation principles and the progression of the sensing platform development. Chapter 2 describes a simple detection of ricin toxin to illustrate the utility of microring resonators for protein analysis. Chapter 3 focuses on the development of an 8-plex panel to detect cancer biomarker that utilizes a protein multilayer strategy to improve assay signals. Chapter 4 explores the clinical utility of the platform by detecting monocyte chemactic protein-1 in human serum matrix. Chapter 5 describes the detection and quantitation of cardiac troponin I in serum samples from cardiac disease patients. Chapter 6 demonstrates the development of a multiplexed assay panel to detect 12 immunoregulatory markers associated with sepsis, as well as application of the panel to test plasma samples from septic patients at the intensive care unit of a local hospital. Finally, Chapter 7 outlines the future work related to the cardiac troponins project and the sepsis project described in the previous two chapters.
Issue Date:2016-04-18
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Winnie W. Shia
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-07-07
Date Deposited:2016-05

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