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Title:A photonic crystal biosensor application for assessment of iron deficiency
Author(s):Peterson, Ross D
Director of Research:Andrade, Juan E
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Wilund, Kenneth R
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Engeseth, Nicki J; Cunningham, Brian T
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):iron deficiency
Abstract:Iron deficiency anemia afflicts 1 in 3 individuals, mostly women and children worldwide. A novel application using iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONs) and a photonic crystal (PC) optical biosensor as an immunodiagnostic platform for detection of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), biomarkers for iron deficiency, is presented. Two assay formats were explored in this research: 1) standard sandwich assay (SA) and 2) inverse sandwich assay (IA). For both of these formats, total analytical error was quantified. Commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) served as the reference methods to quantify the analytical error of the PC biosensor measuring both biomarkers in the IA and SA format. In the SA human liver ferritin (450 kDa), clinical serum controls, and three commercially available ferritin ELISA tests were used to evaluate the PC biosensor assay in terms of inter- and intra-assay variability, spike-recovery (%), and limit of detection (LOD). In the IA format, functionalized iron-oxide nanoparticles (fAb-IONs) were used as magnetic immuno-probes to bind sTfR (85 kDa) and minimize non-specific signals, while enhancing detection on the PC biosensor. Studies were conducted examining the binding ratios of fAb-IONs and sTfR, inherent imprecision, LOD, inter- and intra-assay replication, and nanoparticle aggregation. In both assay formats, a linear dose-response curve was elicited using the fAb-IONs. The final study was a comparison of studies experiment comparing the analytical performance of the IA on the PC biosensor to FDA-certified ELISAs measuring ferritin and sTfR. Samples from chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis were tested on both platforms. Total analytical error was quantified for the PC biosensor measuring ferritin and sTfR. The calculated total analytical error exceeded the quality specification for both biomarkers. Future optimization studies should aim to decrease the errors to be within the quality specifications.
Issue Date:2016-04-20
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Ross Peterson
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-07-07
Date Deposited:2016-05

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