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Title:In situ bioreclamation of contaminated groundwater
Author(s):Rittmann, Bruce E.; Valocchi, Albert Joseph; Odencrantz, Joseph E.; Bae, Wookeun
Contributor(s):University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Water resource development
Water resource development--Illinois
Groundwater contamination
Abstract:This report summarizes the results of a research project aimed at developing a better mechanistic understanding of the phenomena controlling in situ biological activity. A methodology involving laboratory-column experiments and computer modeling was utilized to investigate the formation of biologically active zones (BAZs) when a limiting electron acceptor (NO33 is injected along the flow path and the secondary utilization of trace-level pollutants contained in the water flowing through the BAZ. Laboratory experiments conducted in a unique one-dimensional porous-medium column demonstrated the relationship between lateral injection of NO3- and the location and extent of BAZs when acetate was present as the sole carbon source. BAZs established and sustained by acetate and NO3- were able to degrade trace-level halogenated compounds. Carbon tetrachloride was nearly completely removed, while bromoform, dibromomethane, trichloroethene, and tetrachloroethene were removed to lesser degrees. Trichloroethane was slightly removed. Dichlorobenzenes, previously thought to be refractory in denitrifying conditions, were removed by 20-30% during their passage through the BAZ. The fundamental phenomena of BAZ formation and the utilization of limiting, nonlimiting, and secondary substrates were expressed quantitatively in a computer model that coupled principles of onedimensional solute transport and steady-state-biofilm kinetics. A new, highly efficient solution algorithm was developed to solve directly for the steady-state profiles of the limiting substrate and biofilm mass, as well as for non-limiting and secondary substrates. The predictive ability of the model was verified by successful simulation of the laboratory experiments using independently determined kinetic parameters. The verified model was used to illustrate two possible strategies for field bioreclamation. First, the use of multiple injection points can decrease aquifer clogging potential by spreading out the extent of the BAZ. Second, injection of a supplementary carbon source can extend the length of the BAZ in order to achieve greater removals of secondary substrates.
Issue Date:1988-12-01
Publisher:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Water Resources Center
Genre:Report (Grant or Annual)
Sponsor:U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey
Rights Information:Copyright 1988 held by the authors
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-09-28

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