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Title:Effects of self-selected music on exercise enjoyment, duration, and intensity
Author(s):Chizewski, Annmarie
Advisor(s):Petruzzello, Steven J.
Department / Program:Kinesiology & Community Health
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Abstract:Introduction/Aim: Physical inactivity rates continue to rise, creating a concerning number of health risk factors for those who do not exercise. Many cite lack of enjoyment as a reason why they fail to continue an exercise program once started. Music has been used to enhance affect and positive feelings in therapy, classrooms, and, more recently, during exercise. If music can positively influence the exercise experience it could potentially be used as a way to increase adherence. People react differently to music: individual differences can be due to gender, age, training level, etc. Such differences should be accounted for and should be taken into consideration when looking at the effectiveness of music on an individual. The effects of self-selected music, classical music, and a no music control on enjoyment, behavior, and affective responses during and following exercise were examined. Methods: Male (n=16) and female (n=13) participants, ages 18-45 (22.5±4.5 yrs) with an average height and weight of 174.01±8.95 cm and 73.63±13.67 kg, respectively, were recruited via social media, posters, word of mouth, and emails. Exercise history, health history, and individual trait differences were obtained during session one in addition to a submaximal graded exercise treadmill test during which the participants were brought to 85% of their predicted max heart rate. Sessions 2-4 were randomized and involved the participant exercising with self-selected music (SSM), classical music (CM), or no music (NM). Participants were allowed to exercise for as long as they chose (exercise duration), up to 60 min, at any speed and grade of their choosing (recorded throughout). Heart rate (HR), Feeling Scale (FS), Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were measured and recorded at the beginning of each session, every 5 min during exercise, and 15 min post exercise. Enjoyment of exercise bout was assessed with the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) immediately upon cessation of the bout. Affective response to the exercise (pre, post) was measured using the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL). Results: Exercise accompanied by SSM, compared to CM and NM, elicited significantly higher levels of enjoyment (PACES: SSM=102.5 (±14.5), NM=87.6 (±16.5), CM=86.2 (±19.7). SSM also resulted in significantly longer exercise duration, on average 5.5 min longer than both CM and NM conditions. Affective responses (FS, FAS), although not significant, were more positive during SSM compared to CM and NM. Affective responses (AD ACL) were again not significantly different across conditions, however there was a significant effect of Time on feelings of Energy, Tiredness, Tension, and Calmness. Finally, there were no significant differences across conditions for RPE. Conclusion: Self-selected music elicited the greatest improvements in exercise enjoyment and exercise duration compared to exercising with either classical music or no music at all. This information may be useful when prescribing exercise to those beginning an exercise program in order to increase their enjoyment of the activity and potentially exercise adherence. It may also be useful for the regular exerciser as a way of insuring that enjoyment of the activity remains high. How music, self-selected music in this case, helps to acheive these affective and behavioral changes remains unknown. From the present design the most likely explanation is the distraction the music might offer to the sensations of the activity itself (e.g., increased respiration, muscle fatigue), with the individual's own music providing greater distraction than other kinds of music. It is also possible that the self-selected music offered a motivational boost to the individual, resulting in greater enjoyment of the activity and longer engagement in the activity.
Issue Date:2016-07-22
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Annmarie Chizewski
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-11-10
Date Deposited:2016-08

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