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Title:Alternative methods for mitigating natural photovoltaic variability: dynamic HVAC load compensation and curtailed PV power
Author(s):Magerko, John Alexander
Advisor(s):Krein, Philip T
Department / Program:Electrical & Computer Eng
Discipline:Electrical & Computer Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):photovoltaic
high-frequency solar data
solar variability
dynamic load compensation
HVAC
energy storage
operating reserve curtailment
active grid support
incremental conductance
desired power point tracking
Abstract:Continued integration of renewable energy resources onto the electric grid increases variability and decreases grid stability. Energy storage can help mitigate some of these effects, but conventional energy storage such as batteries is typically expensive and has other disadvantages such as round trip inefficiency and limited lifetime. Real, high-speed solar panel data is used to characterize the stochastic energy output of PV sources, and the numerous challenges faced and methods used when manipulating this real-life data set are detailed. Two alternative methods are then presented to absorb or reduce the variability imposed upon the grid by PV or other generation. (1) Dynamic HVAC load compensation is shown to absorb or "filter" short-term PV variability and act as effective grid inertia. A proposed Butterworth filter power target technique balances energy storage demands with decreased uncertainty. A small-scale model of a variable speed blower and fan is used to provide a conversion between fan speed and power consumed and to estimate filtering limitations imposed by undesirable acoustic effects. Considering the acoustic, physical, and thermal limitations simultaneously, the variation absorption or filtering capability of dynamic HVAC load compensation is analyzed for various building sizes and on-site PV penetrations. The resulting reduction in battery storage capacity and utilization is briefly investigated. (2) PV operating reserve curtailment is introduced. The same Butterworth filter power set-point is used, its implementation is shown as feasible through simulation, and the variability reduction is quantified in two different ways. The claim is made that PV should be treated and priced like conventional grid generation, which is responsible for both energy and regulation capabilities. PV operating reserve curtailment is then shown to be economically favorable for at least some level of reserve. Finally, a proposed metric of optimality is presented that balances energy production with decreased variability.
Issue Date:2016-07-12
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/92812
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 John A. Magerko III
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-11-10
Date Deposited:2016-08


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