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Title:Investigating the chemical basis of functionality differences between beet and cane sugar sources in model egg white foams and other products
Author(s):Reitz, Nicholas F
Advisor(s):Schmidt, Shelly J
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):Meringue
Beet Sugar
Cane Sugar
Egg White
Egg White Protein
Abstract:Though often used interchangeably, researchers have identified differences in functionality between beet and cane sugar sources in some food products. For example, previous research reported sensory differences between meringue cookies made with beet and cane sugar. Beet sugar meringue cookies were more marshmallow-like than cane meringue cookies. However, these sensory differences have not been instrumentally quantified and the underlying cause has not been determined. Thus, the objective of this research was to instrumentally quantify and investigate the chemical basis for the sensory differences between beet and cane meringue cookies. To instrumentally quantify differences between beet and cane meringue cookies, moisture content and water activity was obtained for unbaked meringues and meringue cookies. Additionally, texture profile analysis, three point break analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry was carried out on beet and cane meringue cookies. To gain insight into factors causing differences between beet and cane meringue cookies, heat denatured sugar-egg gel texture, unbaked foam stability, and water loss during simulated baking were obtained. No meaningful difference was found between beet and cane meringues in moisture content, water activity, and foam stability prior to baking. After baking, however, beet meringue cookies where shown to have higher moisture content, water activity, and cohesiveness values, and lower hardness and force to break values. During simulated baking, cane meringues were shown to lose water notable faster than beet meringues, causing moisture and textural differences after baking. These differences during and after baking are likely associated with higher amounts of sulfite in beet sugar compared to cane sugar. Sulfite has been shown to inhibit browning and cleave disulfide bonds, which may causes functional differences egg white proteins during the baking of meringues. To account for differences between beet and cane sugar functionality, a longer baking time for beet sugar meringue cookies is required, though this may lead to undesirable browning and loss of foam volume. Additionally, functional differences between beet and cane sugar were explored in rock candy, crème brûlée, and angel food cakes. This work highlights differences in functionality between beet and cane sugar sources, and raises issues regarding sugar source choice, in addition to market price.
Issue Date:2016-07-11
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/93038
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Nicholas Reitz
Date Available in IDEALS:2016-11-10
Date Deposited:2016-08


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