|Abstract:||Results of foraging experiments with dabbling ducks. Experimental foraging patches with varying seed size (small – Echinochloa frumentacea and large – Oryza sativa), seed density (kg
ha–1), seed burial depth (cm), substrate hardness (clay, sand, and mixed clay and sand [mixed]), and the number of replicates of each patch type in each trial in central Illinois during February–April 2010–2011. Trials 8–10 (Predation Risk) included a visual obstruction with clusters of patches placed at 1-, 5- and 10-m intervals from the obstruction. Trials 1-7 were used to asses Within-patch factors on seed decline and giving-up density. Behavioral observations were conducted of ducks in or near plots while they were deployed. See availability outside of plot locations was obtained with core samples. Details available in Hagy et al., Journal of Avian Biology (doi: 10.1111/jav.01275).