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Title:Effects of supplement type and forage type on ruminal metabolism and diet digestibility of cattle
Author(s):Stierwalt, Madeline Rose
Advisor(s):Shike, Daniel W
Contributor(s):Felix, Tara L; Hurley, Walter
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
forage quality
liquid supplement
rumen metabolism
Abstract:Many ruminant animal production systems still rely heavily on forages (Jung and Allen, 1995). Yet, poor quality forages, including crop residues like corn stover, do not usually meet the animal’s nutrient requirements (NRC, 2000). Corn stover is the fibrous portion of the corn plant left on the field after corn is harvested (i.e. the stalks, leaves, cobs, and husks). Though it is one of the most abundant crop residues in the U.S. (Glassner et al., 1998), it contains little protein or energy (NRC, 2000). In such cases, supplementation in dry or liquid form of the deficient nutrient(s) to provide adequate nutrition is necessary to achieve optimum animal performance (Coleman and Moore, 2003). Despite the fact that liquid feeding has been in practice for over 100 years (Kunkle et al., 1997), research on the use of liquid supplements in grain-based feedlot diets, is limited. Additionally, few studies have directly compared liquid supplementation to dry supplementation and even less have used a commercial liquid supplement. Objectives were to test the interaction of supplement type, liquid versus dry, and forage type, hay versus corn stover, on diet digestibility and ruminal metabolism of cattle. Ruminally fistulated steers were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) hay with a liquid supplement (HL), 2) hay with a dry supplement (HD), 3) corn stover with a liquid supplement (SL), and 4) corn stover with a dry supplement (SD). Steers were fed once daily for ad-libitum intake. Each period began with 14 d dietary adaptation, followed by 8 d of collections (5 d digestibility collection, a 1 d rumen fluid collection, a 1 d in-situ incubation phase and Block 1 methane collection, and a 1 d Block 2 methane collection). In-situ disappearance, which measures the degradation of DM and NDF occurring in the rumen alone, was determined by placing bags, containing soybean hulls, in the rumen for 24 h. There were no interactions (P ≥ 0.25) of supplement and forage type on DMI, apparent total tract digestibility, or ruminal pH. Nor were there effects (P ≥ 0.12) of supplement type on DMI, apparent total tract or in situ digestibility, or ruminal pH. However, steers fed hay had increased (P < 0.01) DMI and increased (trend; P = 0.07) apparent total tract NDF digestibility when compared to steers fed corn stover, regardless of supplement type. Although apparent total tract NDF digestibility was driven by forage type, there was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a forage by supplement type interaction for in situ NDF disappearance (ISNDFD). There were no differences in ISNDFD in steers fed hay; but, liquid supplementation increased ISNDFD in steers fed corn stover. At 0, 1.5, and 18 h post-feeding, ruminal pH was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in cattle consuming corn stover when compared to those fed hay, regardless of supplement type. There was a supplement by hour interaction (P = 0.04) on acetate (Ac) concentrations. At 0h post-feeding, there was no effect; however, at 3 and 6 h post-feeding Ac concentrations were reduced in steers fed liquid when compared to those fed dry supplements. In addition, there was a supplement by hour (P = 0.02) interaction for butyrate (Bu) concentration; where, at all time points, Bu concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.01) in steers fed liquid when compared to those fed dry supplements. Steers fed hay, regardless of supplement type, had increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Ac and total VFA compared to steers fed corn stover. There was no interaction (P ≤ 0.88) of forage type × supplement type on methane emissions. In addition, there were no main effects (P ≥ 0.24) of forage nor supplement types on 24 h CH4 emissions, CH4 per kg BW, or CH4 per kg DMI. Hay was more digestible than corn stover, evidenced by decreased ruminal pH values, increased Ac concentrations, and greater total VFA production, all reflecting greater fermentation. Supplement type had no effect on ruminal fermentation, apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, or NDF, or total VFA production. Liquid supplementation tended to improve NDF degradation in the rumen of steers fed corn stover. Liquid supplementation increased Bu concentrations which has been found to have beneficial effects on the rumen environment and the animal as a whole.
Issue Date:2016-09-13
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Madeline R. Stierwalt
Date Available in IDEALS:2017-03-01
Date Deposited:2016-12

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