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Title:Impact of cross-fostering on the intestinal microbiome and mucosal immune gene expression in neonatal pigs
Author(s):Maradiaga Maradiaga, Nidia Cecilia
Advisor(s):Lowe, James F
Contributor(s):Aldridge, Brian M; Maddox, Carol W
Department / Program:Vet Clinical Medicine
Discipline:VMS-Veterinary Clinical Medcne
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):cross-fostering
colostrum
piglet
microbiome
gastrointestinal
gene expression
Abstract:Colostrum is vital to the newborn pig. Hence, cross-fostering is employed to equalize the number of piglet between litters ensuring colostrum intake for their survival and growth. However, little is known about the impact of cross-fostering on the intestinal microbiome and mucosal immune gene expression of the neonatal pig. Twenty-four piglets were enrolled in the study to determine the influence of maternal microbial communities and to establish a baseline for mucosal immune gene expression in young pigs reared in cross-fostering model given high quality colostrum from birth dam or foster dam upon birth. Piglets were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments according to colostrum source and postcolostral milk feeding for 21 days, as follow: treatment 1 (n = 8), received colostrum and post-colostral milk feeding from their own dam; treatment 2 (n = 8), received colostrum from foster dam and returned to their own dam for post-colostral milk feeding; and treatment 3 (n = 8), received colostrum and post-colostral milk feeding from foster dam. DNA was extracted from nasal, fecal, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the piglets and from colostrum, vaginal, and fecal samples of the sows. Tissues from intestinal mucosa in jejunum, ileum, colon, peyer’s patches, and associated lymph nodes were utilized. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to quantify the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 4, and 10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and interleukin (IL) 4 and 10. Discriminant analysis revealed that bacterial communities varied with biogeographical location in the GI tract, with colon being the most diverse section. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in the GI tract of the young pig. Bacterial communities in both maternal colostrum and vaginal samples were significantly associated with those present in the GI tract, feces, and nasal passage of piglets. Treatment did not affect bacterial communities present in the piglet GI tract, however, the bacterial communities present in piglet fecal and nasal samples changed over time. The mRNA expression of TLRs and inflammatory cytokines changed (P < 0.05) with biogeographical location in the GI tract. Higher mRNA expression of TLRs and inflammatory cytokines was observed in ileum, ileum lymph nodes and peyer’s patches tissues. Although cross-fostering did not impact microbial communities in the piglet, this study suggests an impact of colostrum and maternal influence on the development of the microbiome of the piglet. This study revealed novel information about the distribution and expression patterns of TLRs and inflammatory cytokines in the GI tract of the young pig.
Issue Date:2016-12-02
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/95383
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Nidia Cecilia Maradiaga Maradiaga
Date Available in IDEALS:2017-03-01
Date Deposited:2016-12


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