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Title:Time-based control techniques for integrated DC-DC conversion
Author(s):Kim, Seong Joong
Director of Research:Hanumolu, Pavan Kumar
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Hanumolu, Pavan Kumar
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Krein, Philip T.; Shanbhag, Naresh R.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert
Department / Program:Electrical & Computer Eng
Discipline:Electrical & Computer Engr
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):time-based
DC-DC
buck
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID)
Pulse-width modulator (PWM)
Pulse frequency modulation (PFM)
Abstract:Time-based control techniques for the design of high switching frequency buck converters are presented. Using time as the processing variable, the proposed controller operates with CMOS-level digital-like signals but without adding any quantization error. A ring oscillator is used as an integrator in place of conventional opamp-RC or Gm-C integrators while a delay line is used to perform voltage-to-time conversion and to sum time signals. A simple flip-flop generates a pulse-width modulated signal from the time-based output of the controller. Hence time-based control eliminates the need for a wide bandwidth error amplifier, pulse width modulator (PWM) in analog controllers or high-resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital PWM in digital controllers. As a result, it can be implemented in a small area and with minimal power. First, a time-based single-phase buck converter is proposed and fabricated in a 180nm CMOS process, the prototype buck converter occupies an active area of 0.24mm^2, of which the controller occupies only 0.0375mm^2. It operates over a wide range of switching frequencies (10-25 MHz) and regulates output to any desired voltage in the range of 0.6V to 1.5V with 1.8V input voltage. With a 500mA step in the load current, the settling time is less than 3.5us and the measured reference tracking bandwidth is about 1MHz. Better than 94% peak efficiency is achieved while consuming a quiescent current of only 2uA/MHz. Second, the techniques are extended to a high switching frequency multi-phase buck converter. Efficiency degradation due to mismatch between the phases is mitigated by generating precisely matched duty-cycles by combining a time-based multi-phase generator (MPG) with a time-based PID compensator (T-PID). The proposed approach obviates the need for a complex current sensing and calibration circuitry needed to implement active current sharing in an analog controller. It also eliminates the need for a high-resolution analog-to-digital converter and digital pulse width modulator needed for implementing passive current sharing in a digital controller. Fabricated in a 65nm CMOS process, the prototype multi-phase buck converter occupies an active area of 0.32mm^2, of which the controller occupies only 0.04mm^2. The converter operates over a wide range of switching frequencies (30-70 MHz) and regulates output to any desired voltage in the range of 0.6V to 1.5V from 1.8V input voltage. With a 400mA step in the load current, the settling time is less than 0.6us and the measured duty-cycle mismatch is less than 0.48%. Better than 87% peak efficiency is achieved while consuming a quiescent current of only 3uA/MHz. Finally, light load operation is discussed. The light load efficiency of a time-based buck converter is improved by adding proposed PFM control. At the same time, the proposed seamless transition techniques provide a freedom to change the control mode between PFM and PWM without deteriorating output voltage which allows for a system to manage its power efficiently. Fabricated in a 65nm CMOS, the prototype achieves 90% peak efficiency and > 80% efficiency over an ILOAD range of 2mA to 800mA. VO changes by less than 40mV during PWM to PFM transitions.
Issue Date:2016-11-09
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/95566
Rights Information:Copyright 2016 Seong Joong Kim
Date Available in IDEALS:2017-03-01
Date Deposited:2016-12


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