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Title:Production factors to improve edamame emergence and crop competitiveness with weeds
Author(s):Crawford, Laura Elizabeth
Advisor(s):Williams, Martin M.
Department / Program:Crop Sciences
Discipline:Crop Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Planting depth
Cover crops
Seed size
Abstract:There is a lack of information on edamame production in the United States, despite growing consumer demand. Edamame is typically managed similarly to grain soybean, but edamame differs in several key characteristics, including larger seed size in edamame. Seed size can affect emergence patterns and competitive ability. The available literature indicates edamame typically has low crop emergence and that there are relatively few weed management options for edamame. Little research has been done on the low crop emergence in edamame, but some have indicated that edamame is frequently planted too deep. There has been a successful push to get more herbicides labelled for use in edamame, but producers need complementing management tactics as herbicide resistance becomes more widespread. Integrated weed management plans can include several complementing weed management tactics, including cover crops and crop interference. Research was conducted near Urbana, Illinois to examine the roles of planting depth, cover crops, and crop interference in emergence and weed management in edamame production systems. Seed were separated into small and large size classes in the planting depth and interference trials to evaluate the relationships between seed size and planting depth and between seed size and crop interference. Seed size did not affect total emergence, but smaller seed reached 50% emergence 0.7 days faster than large seed. Planting at 5 cm reduced total emergence by 19% and resulted in a 1.5 day delay in reaching 50% emergence relative to planting at 1 or 2 cm. These results indicate edamame should be planted shallower than is recommended for grain soybean. Results from the study on the use of cover crops in edamame indicate a fall-seeded rye cover crop terminated 6-8 weeks before edamame planting is the best cover crop residue system for suppressing weeds without suppressing the crop. The rye treatment terminated 6-8 weeks before edamame planting resulted in the same crop emergence but 19% lower weed emergence and 93% less weed biomass than the bare soil treatment. Results on the varying degrees of crop interference indicate that larger seeds within a cultivar can influence edamame’s ability to tolerate weed interference and that edamame’s weed suppressive ability can be affected by cultivar choice. Larger seed had 15 and 13% higher tolerance in terms of crop area and biomass, respectively, at 8 weeks after emergence. Compared to other cultivars, White Lion had 53% lower weed suppressive ability in terms of weed biomass at 8 weeks after emergence. These results improve understanding of crop emergence and integrated weed management plans in edamame production.
Issue Date:2017-04-18
Rights Information:Copyright 2017 Laura Crawford
Date Available in IDEALS:2017-08-10
Date Deposited:2017-05

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