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Title:Lipid-based nutrient supplement to address child undernutrition and enteric parasitic infections in India
Author(s):Gaur, Shashank
Director of Research:Andrade, Juan E
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Engeseth, Nicki J
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Feng, Hao; Lee, Youngsoo
Department / Program:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Discipline:Food Science & Human Nutrition
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:Ph.D.
Genre:Dissertation
Subject(s):undernutrition
india
supplements
omega-3
sensory
cryptosporidium, parasite
HCT-8
carvacrol
oregano
cyclodextrin
encapsulation
in-vitro
bioaccessability
Abstract:Undernutrition is an outcome of insufficient food intake and repeated infectious diseases. Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are calorie and nutrient dense food products that are suitable to complement most food rations due to their long shelf life and convenience. Although available in other markets, staple-based LNS for India do not exist. More importantly, no currently available LNS formulations address the other immediate causes of undernutrition such as parasitic infections and gut inflammation in children. The objective of this study was to develop advanced LNS 2.0 with improved shelf stability, consumer acceptability, and antiparasitic activity via added oregano essential oil (OEO) bioactives. LNS were formulated using Indian staple dairy ingredients, and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) via face centered composite design with four factors and three coded levels: antioxidant (ascorbyl palmitate; at 0.0, 0.01, 0.03%), emulsifier (soy lecithin; at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5%), omega-3 (flaxseed oil (FO); at 0, 5, 10%) and accelerated storage temperature and time (23 and 40±2°C; at 0, 3, 6 months). Consumer acceptability was assessed using a 9-point hedonic scale among Indian mothers and students. Next, a dual modality in vitro cell culture model was employed to investigate the effect of OEO and its main bioactive carvacrol on prevention of parasite C. parvum invasion and infection of HCT-8 cells. Finally, β-Cyclodextrin (β-CyD) encapsulation of OEO and carvacrol (1:1 molar) was utilized to mask the potent flavor of bioactives, and achieve controlled intestinal delivery of bioactives, measured using triangle sensory test and 2-phase in-vitro digestion model, respectively. Optimal levels to maximize storage time and flaxseed oil and minimize oxidation were found as 0.02% antioxidant 1.5% emulsifier, and 4.9% FO. LNS formulations were found acceptable with or without FO similar to other commercial supplements. OEO and carvacrol were found to reduce relative C. parvum infectivity in a dose-dependent manner to 55.6 ± 10.4% and 45.8 ± 4.1% at 60 and 30 μg/mL of OEO and CV, respectively. Lastly, β-CyD complexes of OEO and CV were found significantly stable (p<0.05) through the gastric and intestinal phase enabling their potential release in colon via fermentation by colonic microflora. Triangle tests revealed no significant difference in color, smell, and taste between LNS with and without β-CyD-OEO complexes. In conclusion, staple-based LNS functionalized with β-CyD-OEO complex were feasible and can potentiate their application in addressing undernutrition and parasitic infections in at-risk populations.
Issue Date:2017-06-20
Type:Thesis
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/98235
Rights Information:Copyright 2017 Shashank Gaur
Date Available in IDEALS:2017-09-29
Date Deposited:2017-08


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