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Title:The effect of feeding frequency and alternative proteins in milk replacer on growing Holstein calves
Author(s):Sharp, Kaylin Dawn
Advisor(s):Drackley, James K.
Contributor(s):Murphy, Michael R.; Cardoso, Felipe C.; Parrett, Douglas
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree:M.S.
Genre:Thesis
Subject(s):Alternative
Protein
Milk
Replacer
Dairy
Calves
Ruminant
Nutrition
Frequency
Milk replacers (MR)
Holstein
Colostrometer
Abstract:Milk proteins (more specifically whey proteins) typically are the primary component of milk replacers (MR) and have been considered to be the gold standard for calves, because the lack of anti-nutritional factors and high digestibility that allows for growth rate similar to that of a calf consuming its mother’s milk. Milk replacers containing whey protein, although more cost-effective than whole milk, still represent a substantial cost for producers raising calves. Alternative protein sources have been in the forefront of research on MR for many years in the search for more cost-effective feeds for calves. In particular, a blend of bovine plasma protein (PP) and modified wheat protein might be a good replacement for some of the whey protein. Usually, MR is fed twice daily, but some recent research has indicated that feeding three times daily might increase efficiency of calf’s nutrient use. Feeding three times daily might be even more beneficial for MR containing alternate proteins such as bovine plasma and wheat. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of two MR, containing either entirely whey protein or a combination of whey protein, bovine PP, and modified wheat protein, when fed either two or three times daily on calf growth, development, and health of dairy calves. Female and male Holstein calves (n = 103) were studied for the first 63 d of life, with additional measurements obtained at wk 12 of life. The two MR were formulated to contain 25% CP, 17% fat, and a Lys: Met ratio of 3.1:1. Individual treatments arising from the 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR formulation and frequency of feeding were as follows: 2XCON = control all milk protein MR, fed two times daily; 2XWBP = MR containing whey protein plus modified wheat and bovine PP, fed two times daily; 3XCON = control all milk protein MR, fed three times daily; and 3XWBP = MR containing whey protein plus modified wheat and bovine PP, fed three times daily. Following colostrum consumption, calves were fed MR (12.5% solids) at rates of dry matter (DM) dependent upon age. During the first 2 d after birth all calves were fed a baseline MR (Excelerate, Milk Specialties Global Animal Nutrition) at 0.52 kg/d (DM basis), divided into two or three feedings daily according to treatment assignment. Treatment MR then were fed in the following daily amounts of MR (DM basis): d 3 to 10 = 0.52 kg/d (2X = 0.259 kg, 3X = 0.173 kg per feeding); d 11 to 20 = 0.68 kg/d (2X = 0.341 kg, 3X = 0.227 kg per feeding); d 21 to 42 = 0.84 kg/d (2X = 0.42 kg, 3X = 0.28 kg; d 43 to 46, 47, 49, and 51 = 0.42 kg/d, with both 2X and 3X changed to one feeding daily with skip days (d 48 and 50) in-between where calves were not given MR; and on d 52 calves were weaned. Starter was fed from d 1 until d 63. Intakes, health scores, attitude scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and growth measurements were obtained weekly. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, and 48 h and then on d 5, 14, 28, and 42 of age. During wk 1 to 4, calves fed 3XWBP consumed the lowest amount of MR (663 g/d) on average compared with calves fed 2XCON, 3XCON, and 2XWBP (667, 665, and 665 g/d, respectively) because calves fed 3XWBP had greater refusals than their counterparts. For wk 5 to 8, calves fed 3XWBP had the lowest MR consumption (549 g/d) when compared to the other three treatments that had equal consumption on average (551 g/d) for the same reason. As designed, there were no differences in MR intake for wk 6, 7, and 8 among treatments. Starter intake was higher (P = 0.03) for calves fed WBP versus CON, particularly in wk 8 and 9. There was a tendency (P = 0.06) for final BW at d 56 to be greater (+3.9 kg) for calves fed WBP than for calves fed CON. Calves fed WBP gained more BW than calves fed CON, from d 56 (wk 8) to d 84 (wk 12). For all ADG measurements there was no significant difference (P > 0.10) due to diet, frequency, or their interaction. For feed efficiency (gain:feed), the interaction of diet and frequency was significant (P = 0.01), where treatment 2XCON had the highest efficiency. The MR by frequency interaction also was significant (P = 0.04) for hip width, with the 3XWBP calves having the greatest hip width. All other growth measurements were not significantly different (P > 0.10) for the main effects, with the exception of body length for which 2X calves were greater (P = 0.01). There were several significant differences or tendencies according to main effects of diet and frequency for all blood variables except total globulin and BHBA. Scours occurred at a higher frequency for calves fed diet CON versus those fed WBP, and was greater for 2X versus 3X. Respiratory and attitude score did not (P > 0.10) differ among treatments. However, there was a greater rectal temperature variation for calves fed 2X versus those fed 3X. Overall calves fed WBP had increased starter intake and greater BW gains later in the study than calves fed CON; however, the only apparent advantage to feeding 3X versus 2X was the decrease in scours occurrence, potentially due to the decrease in MR intake by 3X calves.
Issue Date:2017-12-06
Type:Text
URI:http://hdl.handle.net/2142/99225
Rights Information:Copyright 2017 Kaylin Sharp
Date Available in IDEALS:2018-03-13
2020-03-14
Date Deposited:2017-12


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