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Title:Dry period plane of energy and periparturient health condition: Effects on production and metabolic responses
Author(s):Pineda Baide, Arnulfo
Director of Research:Drackley, James K.
Doctoral Committee Chair(s):Drackley, James K.
Doctoral Committee Member(s):Cardoso, Felipe C.; Murphy, Michael R.; Pan, Yuan-Xiang
Department / Program:Animal Sciences
Discipline:Animal Sciences
Degree Granting Institution:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject(s):Dry cow
Transition period
Energy intake
Insulin resistance
Abstract:Overconsumption of energy during the dry period has been linked to metabolic disorders during early lactation. Controlled energy, high fiber diets during the dry period have been shown to decrease postpartal body lipid mobilization, concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in blood, and lipid infiltration of liver. It is not known, however, whether these diets alter metabolism in healthy cows or act in some other manner to lessen the likelihood of developing metabolic disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of energy intake during the dry period on production and metabolic responses of dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous Holstein cows dried-off 50 d before calving were blocked by parity, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and previous lactation 305-d milk yield, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments during the dry period. Treatments were 1) a controlled energy (CE; n = 17) high-fiber diet (1.39 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL) per kilogram of dietary dry matter (DM)) formulated to supply 100% of NEL requirements at ad libitum intake, 2) a higher-energy diet (NEL = 1.58 Mcal/kg) fed for ad libitum intake (HE; n = 11) to supply ~150% of NEL requirements, or 3) the same higher energy diet fed at restricted intake (RE; n = 10) to supply 80% of NEL requirements. After calving all cows were fed the same lactation diet. Cows were individually fed and remained in the study until 28 d after calving. Body weight and BCS were measured weekly. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily. Milk samples collected twice weekly were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Cows received an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) on d −8 ± 4 and 8, and an insulin challenge (IC) on d −6 ± 3 and 6 relative to parturition. Blood samples obtained at −30, −15, −5, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min relative to administration of glucose or insulin were analyzed for concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA. Blood samples collected 5 d before and 5 d after calving were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, calcium, and magnesium. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Two analyses were conducted: the first analysis was carried out on cows that remained healthy postpartum, whereas the second analysis included healthy and non-healthy cows. Cows were classified as non-healthy if they experienced displacement of abomasum, retained placenta, metritis, or milk fever. Results of the first analysis indicated that cows fed ad libitum (CE and HE) had greater DMI, NEL intake, and energy balance (EB) during the dry period than cows subjected to restricted intake. Consequently, BW gain was greater in cows fed at ad libitum than restricted intake, but changes in BCS were not observed. Postpartum DMI, NEL intake, EB, BW, BCS, production responses, and blood metabolites were not affected by dry period dietary treatment. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose after GTT prepartum, IC prepartum, and IC postpartum did not differ among treatments. However, the AUC for insulin after IC prepartum and GTT postpartum was greater in cows fed RE than HE. This suggested lower insulin sensitivity and unaltered insulin responsiveness in cows fed restricted amounts. Compared to CE, cows fed HE had greater AUC for glucose but no difference in AUC for insulin after GTT postpartum. This indicated lower glucose clearance and lower insulin responsiveness in HE. Results of the second analysis suggested that cows fed HE had greater NEL intake and EB throughout the dry period than CE, but no differences were observed in DMI. Dry period dietary treatments affected intakes of DM and NEL as well as BCS and changes in BW and BCS postpartum. Cows fed CE while dry tended to have greater postpartum DMI and NEL intake, and significantly lower BCS but lesser changes in BCS and BW at 28 DIM. Milk production and composition were not affected by dry period dietary treatments. Cows with greater BW at dry-off were more likely to experience disease and had poor performance postpartum. Cows that experienced disease had lower DMI, NEL intake, and EB along with greater loss of BW and BCS, and lower BCS postpartum. However, among cows that experienced disease postpartum, those fed CE during the dry period had greater postpartum intakes of DM and NEL than those fed HE. Additionally, cows that experienced disease postpartum had significantly lower yields of milk, 3.5% fat corrected milk, and energy corrected milk, as well as lower concentrations and yields of protein and lactose. The findings of the present study suggest that production and metabolic responses were not affected by dry period energy intake in cows that remained healthy. However, in the presence of disease cows fed CE performed better than cows fed HE.
Issue Date:2017-08-10
Rights Information:Copyright 2017 Arnulfo Pineda Baide
Date Available in IDEALS:2018-03-13
Date Deposited:2017-12

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